The Indian Police Service (IPS) is one of three civil services under the All India Services. IPS Officers are appointed by the President of India. The Ministry of Home Affairs is authorized to control the cadre of IPS officers. In everyday life, they report to the state government of the state where they are posted. They are responsible for upholding law and order, and ensuring the smooth functioning of the police machinery. IPS officers are also responsible for dealing with accidents, inspecting smuggling, drug trafficking, human trafficking, maintaining border security, allaying and preventing terrorism, railway policing and keeping a watch on cyber-crimes. Additionally, they are responsible for the security of key individuals such as the Prime Minister and Chief Ministers.
The IPS is not a force in and of itself, instead, it plays the role of providing officers to the Central Armed Police Force as well as the State Police. In India, the State Police is primarily responsible for maintaining law and order. They are in-charge of local issues such as crime prevention and investigation. Additionally, they serve as the first responders in case of intense internal security challenges such as terrorist attacks. The Central Armed Police forces are experts at handling such conflicts and one of their key roles is to protect the country from any internal threats. They also protect the borders of India from any external aggression or infiltration.
The IPS form a small part of the total Indian police force which consists of 80% constables, 19% subordinate officers, and only 1% IPS officers. Each IPS officer serves in a particular designation. Following is a breakdown of designations according to the ranks (ranging highest to lowest) of an IPS Officer:
- Director-General of Police (DG)
- Additional Director General (ADG)
- Inspector General (IG)
- Deputy Inspector General (DIG)
- Superintendent of Police (SP)
- Deputy Superintendent of Police (DSP)
In addition, IPS officers are also known to lead India's strategic intelligence agencies such as the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW), and Intelligence Bureau (IB). The same is true for certain paramilitary forces like Assam Rifles, Border Security Force (BSF), Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF), Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), etc.