Metropolitan Courts preside over both civil as well as criminal matters. The civil courts include city civil courts and courts of smaller causes. The criminal courts are courts of the Session Judge, Chief Metropolitan Judge and Metropolitan Magistrate.
Metropolitan courts are set up in every metropolitan area that has a population of 10 lakh people or more. Section 16 of the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 (CrPc), states, "there shall be established as many courts of Metropolitan Magistrates, and at such places, as the State Government may, after consultation with the High Court specify."
According to the criminal court structure in India, the courts of Metropolitan Magistrates are ranked as the second lowest. A Metropolitan Magistrate is a first class magistrate who operates under the District & Sessions Judge. They are allowed to pass a sentence of imprisonment that does not exceed 3 years, or a fine that does not exceed INR 10,000.
High Courts are the topmost courts in each state and union territory. Currently, there are a total of 25 High Courts in India. Some Indian states share a common High Court, such as the states of Haryana and Punjab, and the union territory of Chandigarh.
A High Court is a principal court of original jurisdiction in every state and union territory. Although, it only when the Subordinate Courts are not permitted by law to try a matter, then High Courts can exercise their original jurisdiction in criminal or civil cases.
There is a variable number of judges in every High Court. This number is calculated by calculating the average number of main cases filed in a particular court during the last five years and dividing it either by the national average number of cases or by the average rate of cases disposed of by each judge per year for that High Court, whichever is higher.
Only those individuals who are Indian citizens can be appointed as High Court judges. They need to have held a judicial office in India and been an advocate in one or more High Court for atleast 10 years. The Judiciary itself is responsible for appointing High Court judges. This process is neither linked to the Legislature nor the Executive.
High Court judges retire at the age of 62 years and enjoy the safety of tenure until retirement. A High Court judge can only be removed through an address passed by the President. After a High Court judge retired, any office position providing a monetary benefit can not be held by them under the Government of India or a state. However, there are exceptions to this mandate. If the Chief Justice of India consents then retired judges can be nominated for o a temporary office.