Members of Parliament (MPs) are elected differently across Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabhya, and have a different tenure based on the house they are a part of. The role of an MP can be divided into three categories: Legislative, Deliberative, and Developmental. Each of these is explained briefly below:
- Legislative Role: An MPs primary role is that of a legislator who is responsible for the passing of laws.
- Deliberative Role: MPs ensure that the Executive performs its duties satisfactorily. To achieve this, the MPs ask questions to the government ministers and Prime Minister in Parliament. There are provisions such as a Question Hour and a Zero Hour during which MPs can voice written as well as oral questions. The questions can be linked to the specific state or the constituency to which the MP belongs.
- Developmental Role: Apart from their role in Parliament, an MP also plays an additional developmental role in their state or constituency. There are responsible for the growth, well-being, and progress of their state or constituency.
An MP in Lok Sabha is chosen through direct elections where the adult citizens of the country cast their vote. A Lok Sabha MP serves for a term of 5 years. The law allows for the extension of this term in case of a state of emergency for a maximum of one year. Once the state of emergency ends, then the extension can prevail for a maximum of 6 months.
Qualifications required to become an MP of the Lok Sabha:
- Must be a citizen of India.
- Must not be less than 25 years of age.
- Must be a voter for any parliamentary constituency in India.
- Must be a candidate of a recognized political party and have one proposer from their constituency for their nomination.
- An independent candidate needs ten proposers.
- Candidates are required to make a security deposit of INR 25,000
An MP in Rajya Sabha is elected by the members of the State Assembly through a system of proportional representation of states by a single transferable vote. There are lesser members in Rajya Sabha as compared to the Lok Sabha. Membership to Rajya Sabha, unlike Lok Sabha, can not be dissolved at any time because of the permanent nature of the body. Though every second year, one-third of its members retire making space for new members to be appointed through fresh elections and nominations made by the President.
At present, there are 245 MPs in the Rajya Sabha. Of this, 233 members are elected through the votes of the legislatures of states and union territories. The President can appoint the remaining 12 members for their contributions to art, literature, science, and social services.
Qualifications required to become an MP of the Rajya Sabha:
- Must be a citizen of India
- Must be at least 30 years of age